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The Consumer Spyware Industry: An Australian-based analysis of the threats of consumer spyware (PDF, 4.0MB)

Invasive tools of surveillance known as ‘spyware’ are readily available to general consumers and can be used for many abusive and malicious purposes. This report on the findings of research into the consumer spyware industry unpacks the threats that exist from commercially available spyware.

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Offence versatility among co-offenders: A dynamic network analysis

Research examining co-offending has become increasingly popular over the last two decades. Despite this, there remains a dearth of research examining the dynamics of co-offending across time, largely due to limited access to longitudinal data. In the current paper we are interested in explaining crime versatility, and therefore we employ Relational Hyperevent Models (RHEM) to model the conditional probability that a given group of co-offenders engages in one set of crime categories rather than another. Thus, we are analyzing a two-mode network (actors by crime categories) and explain, conditional on a given group of co-offenders, their participation in the set of specific crime types involved in a particular crime event. With respect to co-offending, results reveal that, compared with solo offenders, groups of two or more co-offenders are more likely to engage in crime events involving more than just one crime category. Results suggest that in the context of co-offending both market and property crime show evidence of differential association and social learning. Naïve partners in co-offending partnerships learn the skills and knowledge needed to participate in co-offending involving market and property crime.

Bright D, Whelan C.

Vigilance in infectious disease emergencies: Expanding the concept

In their 2010 book, Lorna Weir and Eric Mykhalovskiy conceptualised the role of vigilance in unknown and emerging infectious disease threats. Theirs is a macro-level account which draws on empirical data to describe vigilance as a set of technical and political arrangements that govern collection, analysis, interpretation and communication of data as it pertains to unknown threats. In this paper we expand their work to detail a conceptual analysis of the role of vigilance at the micro-level during periods of high infectious disease threat. Our data are daily press conferences and associated non-discursive tools in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during times of heightened COVID-19 risk. This paper is a conceptual analysis that draws on theories of vigilance and related concepts to show how a key aspect of vigilance is making previously unseen threats visible or present. Communications formulated and encouraged three types of vigilance as a set of governing relations: institutional or authority-based; individual outward-facing; and individual inward-facing. We also describe the relationship between vigilance and related concepts that are used in response to anticipated public threats. Authority based vigilance involved contact tracing and policing of movement and behaviours. In individual outward facing vigilance people were asked to be alert to, analyse, and react to risk in their immediate environment. Inward facing vigilance required people to gather and react to information about their own behaviours and within their own bodies. There was a relationship between different types of vigilance; as risk increased and authority-based vigilance was less successful in containing the spread of infection, individual vigilance had a stronger role to play. This extension of vigilance at the micro-level sees some of the same unintended consequences as Weir and Mykhalovskiy describe at the global level, particularly in how burdens are inequitably distributed and experienced.

Mayes C.

An Ecofeminist Politics of Chicken Ovulation: A Socio-Capitalist Model of Ability as Farmed Animal Impairment

Through a combined ecofeminist, and critical disability philosophical analysis of the commodification of female farmed animal reproduction, the paper conceptualizes ability as a socio-capitalist construct that can carry the potential for harm. Patriarchal farmed animal capitalism relies upon the idea of naturalized ability of farmed females to be hyper-reproductive/hyper-ovulatory/hyper-lactative. This paper frames the introduced condition of hyper-ovulation in “egg” hens, or the amplification of their ability to lay through selective breeding, as reproductive impairment, and an act of violent patriarchal commodification and capitalization of female reproduction. Impairment, then, functions not just as disability, but also as ability. Focusing on our rescued chickens, the paper argues that such intentionally bred hyper-fertility manifests for individual hens in its least harmful form as chronic illness with the likelihood of everyday pain and inflammation, anxiety, and metabolic hunger; and in its most harmful form as a life-threatening condition. It then examines the subversive ecofeminist politics of using contraception for chickens in a fraught attempt to restore a closer pace of avian ovulation cycles that existed prior to their selective breeding. In allowing infertility to be restored to hen bodies, chicken contraception highlights the disappearance of intentionally introduced reproductive impairment to materialize the patriarchal-capitalist ableist construct of hens who naturally ovulate daily. Ideas of normal and natural can also thus operate in the service of ability. Ultimately, the paper positions the infertile hen as central to a fuller feminist resistance to the governance and control of the female reproductive body.

Narayanan Y.

Pandemic Racism in Australia: A Systematic Review

The COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to diverse manifestations of racism in Australia, from everyday attacks against Asian Australians to discriminatory policies towards temporary migrants. Since the start of the pandemic, considerable knowledge on pandemic-related racism has been produced. This knowledge has yet to be consolidated, leaving questions about the nature, forms, impacts and trajectories of racism during the pandemic. This paper presents a systematic review and synthesis of research on racism during the pandemic, with an emphasis on pandemic-specific racism. We searched the databases Scopus, MEDLINE and PsycINFO for research published between January 2020 and July 2022. Eighteen research studies were included in the review, along with reports of routine data collection by five organisations. The research reviewed collected data mainly around the pandemic’s ‘second wave’ in Australia (June-October 2020), focusing largely on Asian Australians and temporary migrants nationally and in Victoria. Widely studied forms of COVID-racism were verbal abuse, physical attacks, exclusion and Othering, and institutional racism involving governments, media and employers. We examined the pandemic’s health and socio-economic impacts, and variations in experiences of racism over time between ethnic groups. As Australia emerges from the pandemic, we consider the review’s implications for pandemic response, anti-racism practice and policy, and future research.

Elias A, Ben J.

Statistical Learning Methods and Cross-Cultural Fairness: Trade-Offs and Implications for Risk Assessment Instruments

The use of statistical learning methods has recently increased within the risk assessment literature. They have primarily been used to increase accuracy and the area under the curve (AUC, i.e., discrimination). Processing approaches applied to statistical learning methods have also emerged to increase cross-cultural fairness. However, these approaches are rarely trialed in the forensic psychology discipline nor have they been trialed as an approach to increase fairness in Australia. The study included 380 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males assessed with the Level of Service/Risk Needs Responsivity (LS/RNR). Discrimination was assessed through the AUC, and fairness was assessed through the cross area under the curve (xAUC), error rate balance, calibration, predictive parity, and statistical parity. Logistic regression, penalized logistic regression, random forest, stochastic gradient boosting, and support vector machine algorithms using the LS/RNR risk factors were used to compare performance against the LS/RNR total risk score. The algorithms were then subjected to pre- and postprocessing approaches to see if fairness could be improved. Statistical learning methods were found to produce comparable or marginally improved AUC values. Processing approaches increased several fairness definitions (namely xAUC, error rate balance, and statistical parity) between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. The findings demonstrate that statistical learning methods may be a useful approach to increasing the discrimination and cross-cultural fairness of risk assessment instruments. However, both fairness and the use of statistical learning methods encompass significant trade-offs that need to be considered. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

Ashford LJ, Spivak BL, Ogloff JRP, Shepherd SM.

Child disaster resilience in action: Post-bushfire qualitative perspectives on a school-based preparedness program

We aimed to explore the acceptability of delivering a child-focused disaster preparedness program in primary schools in a high disaster-risk area and assess community perspectives of young people’s application of preparedness skills during a large-scale bushfire in Australia. Fifteen adult community members participated in individual key-informant interviews online and in-person. Interviews were conducted one year following a major bushfire event in the community. Reflexive thematic analysis was conducted to determine community perceptions of the preparedness program’s acceptability, applicability and impact. Findings indicated that parents and school staff valued the age-appropriate content and delivery of the preparedness program and viewed it as highly relevant, engaging and applicable for primary school children. Many reported that the program supported child-led decision making in evacuation preparedness, heightened a sense of agency, and enhanced social connectedness. Interviewees described multiple instances of children who had completed the preparedness program later enacting the key response strategies during bushfires. The findings complement calls for child preparedness education and highlight the long-term positive impacts of engaging children in disaster resilience. Accordingly, disaster risk reduction measures should incorporate child-focused strategies to foster whole-of-community resilience in high-risk areas.

Newnham EA, Dzidic PL, Kelly LM.

Examining the Social, Civic, and Political Impact of Local Newspaper Closure in Outback Australia

Scholars across the globe have focused intently on mapping news deserts and gaps where public interest journalism is lacking or in peril. However, little attention is paid to understanding the impacts and changing media-related practices of people who live in communities that lose a designated news service—notably a local newspaper. This article draws on a focused ethnographic study of a small outback mining town, Lightning Ridge (population 2,284), in central New South Wales, Australia. The research was conducted over a two-month period and involved participant observation, 31 interviews with residents and relevant stakeholders, and examination of several media platforms relevant to the town. The article begins with an overview of Australian policy interventions to address the decline of public interest journalism. It then discusses the impact of a local newspaper’s closure via three themes—social, civic, and political. This is important because much of the policy focus in Australia is on the threat “news gaps” present to democracy. However, it is also necessary to understand the nuances of local media’s role in shaping everyday social connections and ritualistic practices and elevating issues to local networks of power. The article concludes by considering how current policy interventions can learn from failed attempts to fill the news gap in Lightning Ridge.

Magasic M, Hess K, Freeman J.

Examining the Social, Civic, and Political Impact of Local Newspaper Closure in Outback Australia

Scholars across the globe have focused intently on mapping news deserts and gaps where public interest journalism is lacking or in peril. However, little attention is paid to understanding the impacts and changing media-related practices of people who live in communities that lose a designated news service—notably a local newspaper. This article draws on a focused ethnographic study of a small outback mining town, Lightning Ridge (population 2,284), in central New South Wales, Australia. The research was conducted over a two-month period and involved participant observation, 31 interviews with residents and relevant stakeholders, and examination of several media platforms relevant to the town. The article begins with an overview of Australian policy interventions to address the decline of public interest journalism. It then discusses the impact of a local newspaper’s closure via three themes—social, civic, and political. This is important because much of the policy focus in Australia is on the threat “news gaps” present to democracy. However, it is also necessary to understand the nuances of local media’s role in shaping everyday social connections and ritualistic practices and elevating issues to local networks of power. The article concludes by considering how current policy interventions can learn from failed attempts to fill the news gap in Lightning Ridge.

Magasic M, Hess K, Freeman J.

Multilevel network interventions: Goals, actions, and outcomes

COVID-19 has resulted in dramatic and widespread social network interventions across the globe, with public health measures such as distancing and isolation key epidemiological responses to minimize transmission. Because these measures affect social interactions between people, the networked structure of daily lives is changed. Such largescale changes to social structures, present simultaneously across many different societies and touching many different people, give renewed significance to the conceptualization of social network interventions. As social network researchers, we need a framework for understanding and describing network interventions consistent with the COVID-19 experience, one that builds on past work but able to cast interventions across a broad societal framework. In this theoretical paper, we extend the conceptualization of social network interventions in these directions. We follow Valente (2012) with a tripartite categorization of interventions but add a multilevel dimension to capture hierarchical aspects that are a key feature of any society and implicit in any network. This multilevel dimension distinguishes goals, actions, and outcomes at different levels, from individuals to the whole of the society. We illustrate this extended taxonomy with a range of COVID-19 public health measures of different types and at multiple levels, and then show how past network intervention research in other domains can also be framed in this way. We discuss what counts as an effective network, an effective intervention, plausible causality, and careful selection and evaluation, as central to a full theory of network interventions.

Robins G, Lusher D, Broccatelli C, Bright D, Gallagher C, Karkavandi MA, Matous P, Coutinho J, Wang P, Koskinen J, Roden B, Sadewo GRP.

Refusing recovery, living a ‘wayward life’: A feminist analysis of women’s drug use

Drawing on cultural historian Saidiya Hartman’s (2019) book Wayward Lives, Beautiful Experiments: Intimate Histories of Social Upheaval, this essay reads one woman’s life with drugs and resistance to drug treatment as a feminist act of refusal, a ‘wayward life’ in Hartman’s terms. Wayward lives are those that refuse dominant forms of servitude and push open alternative ways of being. Although living in a different time and location to the young black women in Hartman’s book struggling to survive after emancipation in the United States, we see the woman (Kim) in our study in contemporary London, United Kingdom, employing similar acts of cramped resistance in a world that treats her as ‘pathological’ and ‘criminal’. We explore the ways in which Kim resists the law, the tropes of pathology that profess to know her, and the abstinence-based treatment systems that seek to change her. Importantly in following Hartman, we are not dismissing her struggles or romanticising her drug use, but rather looking to assemble a picture of her life that captures its admixture of daily trials and challenges, fleeting triumphs, pleasures and acts of resistance. Here we are making room for the kind of embodied and intimate political work that often gets left out of discussions of more formal anti-prohibitionist activism and organisation.

Dennis F, Pienaar K.

Narcofeminism and its multiples: From activism to everyday minoritarian worldbuilding

Sociology has a long-standing interest in the consumption of licit and illicit drugs, particularly as a feminist concern with scholars highlighting the ways in which drugs are used as regulatory technologies to control the conduct and subjectivities of women and other marginalised groups. This monograph flips the focus from a feminist sociological concern with drugs as a means of confining minoritised peoples, to explore what they can do as a feminist practice. Employing the drug-user activist concept of ‘narcofeminism’, it aims to rethink how drugs are conceived in sociology and chart their role in shaping selves and worlds. This article introduces the guiding philosophy of the narcofeminist movement as articulated in an interview we conducted with founding narcofeminist activists from Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Threaded through the interview are vivid examples of the ingrained and overlapping hostilities that differentially constitute drug consumption practices for women and gender minorities, and the brave acts of resistance they perform in response. In introducing the collection, we foreground a key aim that has guided its development: thinking with the insights of narcofeminism, we have sought to address the complexities of drug use and to hold in focus its potentialities both in terms of its harms and benefits, risks and rewards and, importantly, to reflect on how people navigate these counterposing forces in their situated practices of drug use. We also discuss how the collection advances the sociology of drugs by bridging disciplinary divides and disrupting binary distinctions between licit and illicit drugs, volition and compulsion, pleasure and pain, and discourse and practice, among others. This article provides an overview of the contributions that comprise the monograph, highlighting how they grapple with the ethico-political commitments of narcofeminism to rethink drug consumption as a mode of living, capable of transforming social worlds.

Dennis F, Pienaar K, Rosengarten M.

Competing realities, uncertain diagnoses of infectious disease: Mass self-testing for COVID-19 and liminal bio-citizenship

Diagnoses of infectious diseases are being transformed as mass self-testing using rapid antigen tests (RATs) is increasingly integrated into public health. Widely used during the COVID-19 pandemic, RATs are claimed to have many advantages over ‘gold-standard’ polymerase chain reaction tests, especially their ease of use and production of quick results. Yet, while laboratory studies indicate the value of RATs in detecting the SARS-CoV-2 virus antigen, uncertainty surrounds their deployment and ultimate effectiveness in stemming infections. This article applies the analytic lens of biological citizenship (or bio-citizenship) to explore Australia’s experience of implementing a RAT-based mass self-testing strategy to manage COVID-19. Drawing on Annemarie Mol’s (1999, The Sociological Review, 47(1), 74–89) concept of ontological politics and analysing government statements, scientific articles and news media reporting published during a critical juncture of the strategy’s implementation, we explore the kind of bio-citizenship implied by this strategy. Our analysis suggests the emergence of what we call liminal bio-citizenship, whereby citizens are made responsible for self-managing infection risk without the diagnostic certitude this demands. We discuss how the different realities of mass self-testing interact to reinforce this liminal citizenship and consider the implications for the sociology of diagnosis.

Petersen A, Pienaar K.

Afterword: Tensions and possibilities for a narcofeminist sociology

In this piece we reflect on the tensions and complexities of drug use that narcofeminism has prompted us to grapple with in producing this collection. Narcofeminist approaches challenge us to move beyond simplistic, moralistic frameworks that pathologise and stigmatise those who use drugs, and instead seek more nuanced understandings of the social, cultural and political forces through which drug use materialises. By foregrounding the experiences of women and other marginalised groups who use drugs, narcofeminism highlights the ways in which drug consumption is always already gendered, racialised and classed. Narcofeminist approaches insist on a double vision attuned to violence and suffering as well as the possibility of alternative realities. This dual vision recognises a historical and contemporary context of dehumanisation while embracing and reclaiming new forms of humanness that challenge the figure of Enlightenment Man; it insists on the complexities of drug use that are all too often elided by singular stories of pain/pleasure and benefit/harm. Ultimately, narcofeminism challenges us to rethink our assumptions about drug use, and to recognise the voices and subjectivities of people who consume drugs, even in the face of intense hostility and oppression. By doing so, narcofeminist approaches have the potential to enrich and expand the sociological study of drug use and to contribute to drug policies that prioritise care and community over punishment and control.

Dennis F, Pienaar K, Rosengarten M.

Will my boomerang come back? New insights into Aboriginal material culture of early Sydney and affiliated coastal zone from British collections

Aboriginal material culture of the Sydney region has been analysed extensively by Australian archaeologists, notably Vincent Megaw and Val Attenbrow, yet many new insights can be obtained through the examination of hitherto unidentified and unexamined museum objects and dispersed archival documentation in Britain and Ireland. Close engagement with these sources permits a more informed explication of the variety of objects in use in colonial Sydney and its greater affiliated coastal zone. Focussing on the period 1788–1870, this article examines three related object types, termed variously in English ‘swords’, ‘boomerangs’ and ‘clubs’, to investigate their nature, current and former distribution, and histories of collection. Discussions with members of the La Perouse Aboriginal Community in Sydney indicate a great interest in collaborative research to improve understanding of such objects, because few of these collected and removed objects have been documented to a precise place of origin. Stylistic comparison of actual objects with historic images of similar types therefore remains a basic first step. This fundamental work is necessary to engage the appropriate community research partners but raises questions as to methodologies for community engagement with unprovenanced objects, or those known only to be from a large regional area, which may encompass many groups. Ascertaining places of origin is thus critical to ensuring the accuracy and validity of any repatriation or restitution efforts, and in making sure that the ‘right’ objects return to relevant Aboriginal communities.

Sculthorpe G.

Repatriation of Indigenous Cultural Heritage: Experiences of Return in Central Australia

Repatriation of Indigenous Cultural Heritage examines how returned materials – objects, photographs, audio and manuscripts – are being received and reintegrated into the ongoing social and cultural lives of Aboriginal Australians.

Combining a critical examination of the making of these collections with an assessment of their contemporary significance, the book exposes the opportunities and challenges involved in returning cultural heritage for the purposes of maintaining, preserving or reviving cultural practice. Drawing on ethnographic work undertaken with Aboriginal communities and the institutions that hold significant collections, the author reveals important new insights about the impact of return on communities. Technological advances, combined with the push towards decolonising methodologies in Indigenous research, have resulted in considerable interest in ensuring that collections of cultural value are returned to Indigenous communities. Gibson challenges the rhetoric of museum repatriation, arguing that, while it has been tremendously important to advancing Indigenous interest, it is too often over-simplified.

Repatriation of Indigenous Cultural Heritage offers a timely, critical perspective on current museum practice and its place within processes of cultural production and transmission. The book is sure to resonate in other international contexts where questions about Indigenous re-engagement and decolonisation strategies are being debated and will be of interest to students and scholars of Museum Studies, Indigenous Studies and Anthropology.

Gibson JM.

Decolonizing ocean spaces: Saltwater co-belonging and responsibilities

Oceans in the colonial Anthropocene are haunted by the brutal racial logics of slavery, indenture, plunder, violence, death, and multispecies extinction. This brutality manifested through uneven burdens of climate extremes, global warming, ocean acidification, sea level rise, pollution, and threats from offshore energy extraction, chokes the “life force” of oceans that sustain planetary belongings and futures. Global agreements on climate change, biodiversity conventions, sustainable goals, and laws of the sea increasingly attempt to transform dystopic planetary futures through openness to Indigenous and local knowledges. But these overlooked Indigenous, Black, Brown, and southern intellectual traditions of belonging and responsibility in settler colonial, postcolonial, and post-apartheid societies have always existed alongside white, western Euro-American ontologies of the ocean. As subaltern southern and Indigenous scholars, our privileging of ontologies of the ocean amid the racial, colonial, and capitalist logics that continues to suffocate people and the planet, seeks to do more than enrich white, western, English-speaking Euro-American institutions. We, therefore, face ethical dilemmas as we assemble and prioritize strands of literature in our decolonial, polyphonic place-based ocean storytelling that seeks to advance new directions in Environmental Geography.

Lobo M, Parsons M.

Rebuilding Mosul: Public opinion on foreign-led heritage reconstruction

Following the devastation of the northern Iraqi city of Mosul by the Islamic State, various foreign actors launched initiatives to reconstruct the heritage sites of the city. However, such efforts are underpinned by assumptions about how local people value their heritage, how they perceive its destruction, whether they view reconstruction as a priority and the extent to which they support foreign-led efforts to rebuild their heritage. This article holds these assumptions up to empirical scrutiny via an original survey of 1600 Mosul residents and their attitudes towards heritage. The results hold four key implications for current and future heritage projects in Mosul, namely that while residents want to see heritage sites reconstructed, they prefer that heritage reconstruction not be privileged over humanitarian aid, development and peace building; includes the rebuilding of their local religious sites as much as iconic and/or non-religious sites and transforms sites into new and more useful structures to the community, and while they acknowledge the work of foreign actors, they want agency and control over the future of their heritage. The article concludes by noting that such findings hold important implications for future foreign-led heritage projects in (post-)conflict environments where mass human suffering and heritage destruction has taken place.

Isakhan B, Meskell L.

Productive disruptions: Supporting diversity and anti-racism in the workplace through multi-level organisational strategies

Racism in the workplace occurs at both the interpersonal and institutional level in terms of prejudiced attitudes and behaviours and avoidable and unfair differences in hiring, retention and opportunities for training and promotion. Many organisations have stated commitments to workforce diversity; however, work-related racism remains the most common forms of reported discrimination. Rather, efforts to increase workforce diversity will fail in the absence of measures to address discriminatory attitudes, behaviours, practices and cultures. Current approaches also lack strategic development, including knowledge of how to implement workforce diversity and anti-racism strategies at multiple organisational levels. Specifically, there is less understanding of measures to support structural level change. This article aims to advance both theoretical and empirical understanding of racism and anti-discrimination in the workplace. We do this by presenting a multi-level framework for understanding and addressing workplace racism. We also study the implementation of a meso-level workplace diversity and anti-discrimination assessment within two local government organisations in Australia. Findings revealed the importance of implementing strategies across multiple organisational levels and establishing accountability for commitments to diversity and anti-racism practice. Despite its structural and universal drives, we argue that racism can be disrupted through the presence of diversity in the workplace and anti-racism intervention.

Trenerry B, Dunn K, Paradies Y.

The Victorian Spiritualists’ Union and the Surprising Survival of Spiritualism in Australia

The new religion of Spiritualism emerged in the mid-19th century. Through mediumship, Spiritualists contacted the dead, believing them to have “passed over” to another plane of existence. It spread from America to Great Britain before arriving in Australia in the 1850s. This article charts the history of the world’s oldest continuously running Spiritualist organisation, the Victorian Spiritualists’ Union (VSU, est. 1870), exploring the unexpected survival of the movement in Australia. It challenges the common idea that Spiritualism enjoyed only a brief revival in the interwar period and has maintained a tenuous status ever since. Rather, I argue that Spiritualism has experienced several peaks and troughs since its emergence in Australia, including a widespread revival in the 1970s, spearheaded by the VSU. Spiritualism in Australia survives due to the development of a church movement, the advocacy of groups such as the VSU, the generous volunteer efforts of individual Spiritualists, the acquisition of church buildings, and its geographic mobility, all of which have allowed Spiritualist churches to be responsive to changing social and cultural conditions for more than a century. It is one of Australia’s largest and most resilient alternative religious movements, not simply a Victorian-era curio.

Singleton A.

Towards a critical transformative approach to inclusive intercultural education

Education has often acted as a social microcosm that reflects the growing levels of religious and cultural diversity in Australia, with educators facing the daily task of responding pedagogically and interculturally to the challenges this evolving context brings. This paper engages critically with intercultural initiatives and policies and their role in fostering inclusivity and cross-cultural understanding in education practice across Australia. It explores the discourses, policies, and curricula developments that attempt to address growing levels of diversity both within and beyond educational settings. The paper argues that policy statements and educational policies alone are not sufficient to ensure broader uptake of an intercultural pedagogic ethos. Rather, such initiatives need to be augmented by broader institutional leadership, adequate resourcing, and context-sensitive enabling strategies. This argument is corroborated by current evidence indicating that principled approaches to introducing intercultural perspectives in education require certain conditions before they can disrupt long-standing racist attitudes and exclusionary discourse. The implementation of systematic and transformative intercultural approaches in schools can create more inclusive pedagogic practices and respectful intercultural relations that transcend the boundaries of the schoolyard and extend into broader society. Targeted, long-term intercultural understanding trainings can also engender more constructive discourse within and beyond schools.

Elias A.

Tomorrow’s Country: Practice-oriented principles for Indigenous cultural fire research in south-east Australia

First Nations peoples are revitalising diverse cultural fire practices and knowledge. Institutional and societal recognition of these practices is growing. Yet there has been little academic research on these fire practices in south-east Australia, let alone research led by Aboriginal people. We are a group of Indigenous and settler academics, practitioners, and experts focused on cultural fire management in the Victorian Loddon Mallee region. Using interviews and workshops, we facilitated knowledge sharing and discussion. In this paper, we describe three practice-oriented principles to develop and maintain collaborations across Aboriginal groups, researchers, and government in the Indigenous-led revitalisation of fire on Country: relationships (creating reciprocity and trust), Country (working with place and people), and power (acknowledging structures and values). Collaborations based on these principles will be unique to each temporal, social, cultural, and geographic context. Considering our findings, we acknowledge the challenges that exist and the opportunities that emerge to constructively hold space to grow genuinely collaborative research that creates change. We suggest that the principles we identify can be applied by anyone wanting to form genuine collaborations around the world as the need for social–ecological justice grows.

Rawluk A, Neale T, Smith W, Doherty T, Ritchie E, Pascoe J, Murray M, Carter R, Bourke M, Falconer S, Nimmo D, Price J, White M, Bates P, Wong N, Nelson T, Atkinson A, Webster D.

Staying with the silence: Silence as affording care in online alcohol and other drug counselling

As the name ‘talk therapy’ suggests, a key aim of alcohol and other drug counselling, psychotherapy and other talk therapies is to discuss issues, concerns and feelings with a health professional. Implicit here is the therapeutic value of talking through issues with a trained professional. But as with all interactions, therapeutic encounters involve silences and pauses as key aspects of the communicative process. Despite their ubiquity in the therapeutic encounter, research tends to either dismiss silences as inconsequential or as having undesirable effects, such as generating awkwardness or even disengagement from treatment. Drawing on Latour’s (2002) concept of ‘affordance’ and a qualitative study of an Australian alcohol and other drug counselling service, we explore the varied functions of silences in online text-based counselling sessions. For clients, these include the role of silence in affording opportunities to engage in other everyday practices, such as socialising, caregiving or working – practices that can generate comfort and reduce distress, which in turn may support the therapeutic encounter. Similarly, for counsellors, temporal silences provide opportunities to confer with other counsellors and provide tailored care. However, protracted silences can raise concerns about the safety and wellbeing of clients who do not respond promptly or who exit encounters unexpectedly. Similarly, the sudden cessation of online care encounters (often associated with technical difficulties) can leave clients feeling frustrated and confused. In tracking these diverse affordances of silence, we draw attention to its generative potential in care encounters. We conclude by exploring the implications of our analysis for conceptions of care that underpin alcohol and other drug treatment.

Savic M, Barnett A, Pienaar K, Carter A, Warren N, Sandral E, Manning V, Lubman DI.

Exploring the associations between the perception of water scarcity and support for alternative potable water sources

This study examines the association between the perception of water scarcity and support for alternative water sources in general, and specifically desalination and recycled water. It also examines the mediating role that perception of climate change has on the aforementioned association. A 46-item survey (n = 588) was conducted in the Geelong region of Australia. Logistic regression was used to determine the independent association between perceived water scarcity and socio-demographic factors, with support for alternative water sources, desalination and recycled water. 82% of respondents supported undefined ‘alternative water sources’. However, support for specific alternatives was lower (desalination: 65%; recycled water: 40.3%). Perception of water scarcity was significantly associated with increased odds of support for alternative water sources (OR 1.94, 95% CI: 1.25–3.00) and support for recycled water (OR 2.32, 95% CI: 1.68–3.31). There was no significant relationship between perception of water scarcity and support for desalination (OR 0.959 95% CI: 0.677–1.358). Climate change was found to mediate perceived water scarcity and support for alternative sources (OR 1.360, 95% CI: 0.841–2.198). The mediation of the relationship between perceived water scarcity and support for recycled water by climate change was not strong. These results facilitate enhanced community engagement strategies.

Semasinghe C, Jatrana S, King TJ.

Exploring the associations between the perception of water scarcity and support for alternative potable water sources

This study examines the association between the perception of water scarcity and support for alternative water sources in general, and specifically desalination and recycled water. It also examines the mediating role that perception of climate change has on the aforementioned association. A 46-item survey (n = 588) was conducted in the Geelong region of Australia. Logistic regression was used to determine the independent association between perceived water scarcity and socio-demographic factors, with support for alternative water sources, desalination and recycled water. 82% of respondents supported undefined ‘alternative water sources’. However, support for specific alternatives was lower (desalination: 65%; recycled water: 40.3%). Perception of water scarcity was significantly associated with increased odds of support for alternative water sources (OR 1.94, 95% CI: 1.25–3.00) and support for recycled water (OR 2.32, 95% CI: 1.68–3.31). There was no significant relationship between perception of water scarcity and support for desalination (OR 0.959 95% CI: 0.677–1.358). Climate change was found to mediate perceived water scarcity and support for alternative sources (OR 1.360, 95% CI: 0.841–2.198). The mediation of the relationship between perceived water scarcity and support for recycled water by climate change was not strong. These results facilitate enhanced community engagement strategies.

Semasinghe C, Jatrana S, King TJ.

Understanding the Social Value of Geelong’s Design and Manufacturing Heritage for Extended Reality

Post-industrial cities often find themselves at a crossroads as to whether to find a new identity or embrace their industrial past. In late 2017, after the closure of major manufacturing plants in the region, the Australian city of Geelong was designated a UNESCO City of Design and embraced a “Clever and Creative” strategy which acknowledged Geelong’s industrial and design past in responding to contemporary technological, demographic, and economic challenges. However, questions remain as to which versions of the past are valued by the local community and how these stories can be shared. To better understand the social value of design and manufacturing heritage in Geelong as well as to get initial feedback on how to interpret this type of heritage through novel immersive extended reality (XR) experiences, the researchers took a community-led approach. This paper reports on the results of the initial online community surveys (N = 55–137) and in-person stakeholder interviews (N = 5) with carefully selected representatives of the local government, education, heritage, tourism, and engineering sectors. The study’s outcome demonstrates the importance of design and manufacturing heritage for the local community’s identity. Moreover, this type of heritage provides a source of inspiration, learning opportunities for future creative problem-solvers, and economic opportunities through tourism. By engaging with the social value of design and manufacturing heritage, this paper argues that more effective and targeted storytelling, game-like applications, and other digital immersive experiences such as extended reality (XR) can be used to better engage with audiences.

Antlej K, Cooke S, Kelly M, Kennedy R.

Cultural determinants and resilience and recovery factors associated with trauma among Aboriginal help-seeking clients from an Aboriginal community-controlled counselling service

In addition to resilience and resistance, collective and personal experiences of trauma are commonly cited within the context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and other Indigenous First People’s experiences of colonisation. This study investigated whether a range of risk and protective factors, including cultural determinants of social and emotional wellbeing, were associated with posttraumatic stress outcomes among 81 Aboriginal help-seeking clients from an Aboriginal community-controlled counselling service in Melbourne, Australia. The study explored potential relationships between trauma exposure, child removal from natural family, experiences of racism, gender, and trauma symptom severity. The study also investigated whether personal, relationship, community and cultural strengths and determinants of wellbeing, as detailed in the Aboriginal Resilience and Recovery Questionnaire, moderated the relationship between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Participants commonly endorsed symptoms of distress consistent with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and cultural idioms of distress as documented in the Aboriginal Australian Version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Two generations of child removal from one’s natural family, experiences of racism, stressful life events experienced during the past 12 months, being male, and not having access to funds for basic living expenses were all associated with greater trauma symptom severity. Conversely, participants self-reported access to personal, relationship, community and cultural strengths was associated with lower trauma symptom severity. Regression analysis revealed that trauma exposure, stressful life events, access to basic living expenses, and personal, relationship, community, and cultural strengths were all important predictors of posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Participant access to strength and resources that included connections to community and culture, moderated the relationship between trauma exposure and trauma symptom severity.

Gee G, Hulbert C, Kennedy H, Paradies Y.

Rethinking Women’s “Performance and Image-Enhancing Drug Consumption”: An Agenda for Ontopolitically-Oriented Research

Women’s “performance and image-enhancing drug consumption” is a growing phenomenon yet remains an under-studied area of research. This essay reviews the existing literature on women’s consumption and draws on Fraser’s concept of ontopolitically-oriented research to develop an agenda for future research. Ontopolitically-oriented research applies insights from Science and Technology Studies (STS) to consider the ontological politics of research practices, that is, the realities they enact and foreclose. We argue that the current focus in the existing literature on a limited set of methods and issues risks obscuring the diverse meanings and practices of women’s substance consumption for fitness and strength-training, and genders agency in ways that further entrench assumptions of women’s vulnerability and passivity. We consider issues pertaining to the nomenclature of performance and image-enhancing drugs, the gendering of agency in formulations of “health” risks and initiation experiences, and the need to understand women’s consumption practices in relation to broader cultural changes in health optimization and digital fitness cultures. We argue that ontopolitically-oriented research into women’s substance consumption for fitness and strength-training requires greater methodological diversity and attention to the politics of data generation. It should aim to constitute women’s experiences through terms, connections and coalitions that expand our understandings of women’s agency, and the gendered and social contexts of enhancement practices.

Fomiatti R, Toffoletti K, Pienaar K.

Pandemic policing and the construction of publics: an analysis of COVID-19 lockdowns in public housing

COVID-19 responses have cast a spotlight on the uneven impacts of public health policy with particular populations or sites targeted for intervention. Perhaps the starkest example in Australia was the ‘hard’ lockdown of nine public housing complexes in inner-city Melbourne from 4 to 18 July 2020, where residents were fully confined to their homes. These complexes are home to diverse migrant communities and the lockdown drew public criticism for unfairly stigmatising ethnic minorities. This article draws on media articles published during the lockdown and the Victorian Ombudsman’s subsequent investigation to explore the implications of broad, top-down public health measures for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. Drawing on Lea’s (2020) conceptualisation of policy ecology, we analyse the lockdown measures and community responses to explore the normative assumptions underpinning health policy mechanisms, constituting ‘target populations’ in narrow, exclusionary terms. We argue that the lockdown measures and use of police as compliance officers positioned tower residents as risky subjects in risky places. Tracing how such subject positions are produced, and resisted at the grassroots level, we highlight how policy instruments are not neutral interventions, but rather instantiate classed and racialised patterns of exclusion, reinforcing pervasive social inequalities in the name of public health.

Kelaita P, Pienaar K, Keaney J, Murphy D, Vally H, Bennett CM.

Transnational securitization and violence: the discursive mechanism behind the pro-AKP diaspora’s repression of the dissident diaspora groups in the West

Authoritarian regimes do not only target and oppress their opponents at home, they also try to repress dissident diaspora members abroad. The literature on transnational (extraterritorial) repression has shown that authoritarian regimes normally use transnational organs of the state such as intelligence services as part of their usual transnational repression activities. However, since they do not have sovereignty in the countries, their transnational repression has limits. This article argues that loyal diaspora supporters help these regimes as additional repression and violence apparatuses by trying to repress diaspora members from the same country of origin. However, the discursive mechanism behind this phenomenon has not been studied. This study aims to address this gap. Based on the competitive authoritarian Turkish case, it introduces the concept of “transnational securitization” to securitization theory. The article argues that what makes this type of securitization different is that the audience (pro-government Turkish and non-Turkish Muslim diaspora groups) is not only convinced by the securitization narrative that legitimates the use of extraordinary means that are normally undertaken by the state, but takes it upon themselves to carry on the anti-dissident repressive and violent actions. The article contributes to both transnational repression and securitization literatures.

Yilmaz I, Shipoli E, Dogru A.

I won’t listen if I think we’re losing our way: How right-wing authoritarianism affects the response to different anti-prejudice messages

Prejudice reduction messages have been shown to be effective through changing norms. Previous research suggests that Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) moderates the reaction to these messages, but it is unclear whether individuals high in RWA are more or less sensitive to prejudice-reduction campaigns. This research used the social identity approach to investigate the role of RWA in moderating the reactions to messages that look to reduce support for prejudicial policies and associated prejudice against an ethnoreligious group (Muslims). Americans (N = 388) were presented with statements on a real, proposed ban on Muslim immigration into the US from an in-group member (i.e., an American freight worker who disapproves of the Muslim ban), outgroup member (an Iraqi refugee who is in favour if the Muslim ban), or both, or control message. Those high in RWA showed consistently high levels of prejudice against Muslims in all conditions, but those low in RWA showed lower prejudice when presented with the anti-prejudice message from an in-group member (compared to control). This suggests that anti-prejudice messages primarily affect those with low RWA, clarifying that RWA likely leads to resistance to anti-prejudice messages regardless of the source. Future research aiming to reduce prejudice should examine how messages can be tailored to reduce prejudice in those with high RWA.

Bouguettaya A, Vergani M, Sainsbury C, Bliuc A.

Promoting trust and police legitimacy in African Australian communities: A critical reflection on community engagement strategies and practical recommendations for police

Community engagement strategies intended to build trust and legitimacy are used widely by police agencies. Available research on the utility of these strategies shows mixed results and police have been criticised for adopting a ‘one-size fits all’ mentality when employing these strategies across minority groups. Yet, community engagement strategies remain a preferred tool for police seeking to improve their relations with minority groups. This article unpacks police–community engagement as a tool for promoting trust and legitimacy among African Australians. The first half of the article provides an overview of community engagement strategies and presents an engagement typology that is used to assesses critically the strengths and limitations of key strategies used by police vis-à-vis trust and legitimacy. The second half of the article canvasses the relationship between African Australian communities and the police, and draws attention to sociocultural factors that must be considered by police when developing and implementing engagement initiatives. The article concludes with several recommendations for police including the need to prioritise the needs of the community over intelligence gathering by embedding employment and education services into engagement initiatives.

Ali MM, Shepherd S, (Shiday) BMA.

Use of Civilisational Populist Informal Law by Authoritarian Incumbents to Prolong Their Rule

Once voted into office, populist governments have often found undemocratic means to prolong their stay. The literature on populists in power is evolving and expanding. However, it has mainly focused on how the populists in power attack institutions such as the judiciary, rule erosion, and dirty institutionalism. How populists make use of the law and the judiciary to prolong their authoritarian rule remains an area that is under-researched. The populists’ use of informal institutions such as the unofficial law when in power has not been studied either. This paper addresses these gaps in the populism literature by studying Turkey’s Islamist populist ruling party’s use of informal law in prolonging its authoritarian rule. The paper argues that the Islamist civilisational populist AKP has been using informal Islamist law for both the legitimation of its rule and the repression of the opposition. It shows how the AKP officials, the state’s Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet), the pro-AKP Sharia scholars, and other informal religious authorities employ the civilisational populist Islamist legal narrative to argue that according to Sharia it is obligatory to choose the side of the God that is represented by the AKP and to vote against the infidel opposition that is an existential danger to the pure Muslim people of Turkey and their religion. The paper combines and contributes to two theoretical strands. The first is civilisational populism, and the second is the informal institutions, with a focus on informal law and legal pluralism.

Yilmaz I.

Beyond the ‘Triple Win’: Pacific Islander farmworkers’ use of social media to navigate labour mobility costs and possibilities through the COVID-19 pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the global horticultural sector’s reliance on migrant workers. Within Australia, public attention was focused particularly on Pacific Islanders employed through the Seasonal Worker Programme (SWP) guestworker scheme. With national border closures resulting in significant labour shortages for the horticultural industry, special-purpose exemptions allowing limited groups of SWP workers to enter the country were celebrated as a source of reprieve for struggling farmers. For Pacific Islander workers and communities, however, the prospect of leaving Pacific countries (many of whom had at the time no, or very few, recorded cases of COVID-19) to labour for unspecified periods in a country experiencing much higher rates of infection, was fraught. In this paper, we examine the use of social media by Pacific Islanders to negotiate the costs and benefits of temporary labour migration amid the pandemic. For ni-Vanuatu workers, we argue, Facebook groups facilitated depictions and negotiations of guestwork that were significantly more complex and nuanced than the reductive and bifurcated terms of mainstream media discourse about the SWP scheme. We conclude by highlighting the necessity of foregrounding migrant workers’ voices in evaluating guestworker schemes, and the value of social media as a dynamic space within which this might be done.

Stead VC, Petrou K.

Climates of control: Violent adaptation and climate change in the Philippines

This paper considers the limits of adaptation as a concept in global environmental governance and advocacy by examining the climate change policy of the populist Philippine president Rodrigo Duterte. By focusing on heterogenous state responses to the 2018–2019 El Niño drought, I demonstrate how the Duterte administration has worked to achieve a violent vision of climate adaptation through a jarring combination of practices: exhorting the devastating reality of climate change; denigrating multilateral mitigation efforts as colonial injustices; subverting indigenous peoples’ land rights; and fostering the extrajudicial assassination of activists. Though Duterte’s wider climate change policies are often viewed as a strategic distraction or the isolated product of an erratic populist, I argue that these recent responses to climate change in the Philippines, which fuse decolonial and nationalist sensibilities to confrontational forms of illiberalism, should be examined as part of the larger unfurling of illiberal adaptation politics across Philippine history and the Global South. These politics, and their considerable (though far from total) local resonance, challenge both universalist Western political rationalities and new directions in climate justice movement calling for ontological inclusivity. I highlight the need for a closer examination of the origins, practices and implications of violent adaptions.

Smith W.

The Relationship Between Cultural Engagement and Psychological Well-being Among Indigenous Adolescents: A Systematic Review

The disproportionate burden of mental illness experienced by Indigenous adolescents is well established. Therefore, this review focused on how the well-being of Indigenous adolescents can be better promoted. The review identified studies that examined the relationship between cultural engagement and psychological well-being among Indigenous adolescents. To achieve this, a systematic search of published literature across seven online databases including Medline and EMBASE was conducted between October and November 2020. To meet the inclusion criteria, studies were required to include a sample of Indigenous adolescents and measure the relationship between psychological well-being and cultural engagement. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria, yielding a total sample size of 19,231 participants. Eighteen studies (72%) reported a significant positive relationship between cultural engagement and psychological well-being, four studies (16%) reported a nonsignificant relationship, and three studies (12%) reported mixed findings. Despite measuring different domains of culture across the 25 studies, these findings demonstrate relatively strong evidence of a positive association between cultural engagement and psychological well-being. They highlight the importance of culture for young Indigenous Peoples in developing a positive well-being. In the future, researchers should focus on specifying how intervention factors contribute to cultural engagement effects and establish further contributors to well-being and positive development among Indigenous adolescents. The findings of this review advance our understanding of how Indigenous Peoples interpret culture and their engagement with this culture. This has implications for policy, programs, and interventions intended to enhance well-being outcomes for Indigenous communities.

Doery E, Satyen L, Toumbourou JW.

Proper distance in the age of social distancing: Hepatitis C treatment, telehealth and questions of care and responsibility

During the COVID-19 pandemic, telehealth has played a prominent role in the treatment of hepatitis C. As part of a qualitative study on the accessibility and effectiveness of telehealth for hepatitis C treatment during this period in Australia, this article considers how health-care practitioners and patients experience and manage their proximity to each other in telehealth encounters of care. Comparisons between telehealth and in-person health-care tend to focus on measures of patient satisfaction rather than qualitative changes in treatment relationships. Media scholar Silverstone (Digital media revisited: Theoretical and conceptual innovations in digital domains, MIT Press, 2003) uses the term ‘proper distance’ to theorise how ethical relationships are mediated by technology. Drawing on this concept, we explore how patients and health-care practitioners understand telehealth as affecting distance and proximity. We find that both groups express some ambivalence about the impact of telehealth on relationships, on the one hand expecting and privileging simple, transactional relationships, and on the other hand, expressing concerns about the loss of more intimate relationships in health care and about ‘missing something’ while providing health care. Given that proximity is important to the development of ethical relationships in health care, we conclude with some considerations for establishing and sustaining attentive and responsive relationships in telehealth.

Shaw F, Fomiatti R, Farrugia A, Fraser S.

Bystander reporting to prevent violent extremism and targeted violence: learning from practitioners

The willingness of friends or family to share concerns about an ‘intimate’ preparing to perpetrate public, mass violence, such as violent extremism or targeted violence, is considered a possible part of preventative strategies. To understand what is needed to help intimate bystanders share information on potential acts of violent extremism or targeted violence, we conducted 25 semi-structured qualitative interviews with experts in intimate bystander reporting, including law enforcement, social service and mental health providers, faith-based leaders, staff in school threat assessment programs, and community practitioners in California and Illinois. Results showed reporting was impeded by multiple factors, including lack of knowledge about violent extremism and reporting processes, fear of being incorrect, difficulty distinguishing between violent extremism and mental illness, low trust in law enforcement, and lack of standardized reporting processes. Practitioners said reporting could be improved by several interventions, including increasing awareness about reporting processes, improving reporting methods and policies, training community members who can take reports, and increasing trust between community members and law enforcement. Improving bystander reporting for targeted violence and violent extremism in the U.S. requires collaboratively strengthening law enforcement and community capacities based on sound theory, best practices, and monitoring and evaluation.

Eisenman DP, Weine S, Shah ND, Jones NV, Smith CP, Thomas P, Grossman M.

An Empirical Comparison of the Profiles of Security Threat Group Offenders with General Offenders

Datasets of offender attributes, both pre-custody and in-custody, were provided by the Correctional Service of Canada with the goal of exploring whether Security Threat Group (STG) offenders (informally, gang members of various kinds) differ in any systematic way from other offenders. For pre-custody attributes, we show that the entire offender population varies along two almost independent axes, one associated with affinity for violence, and the other with affinity for substance abuse. Within this structure, STG offenders are characteristically less extreme, in either direction, than the general offender population. For approximately two dozen attributes, STG offenders, as a group, tend to have higher values; for a few, they tend to have lower values. For in-custody attributes, the entire offender population forms a triangular structure whose vertices represent: passivity; violence and troublemaking; and involvement in programs leading to partial release. The differences between the STG offender population and the general offender population are small. An offender who is placed at the high end of the propensity for violence axis and/or the high end of the substance abuse axis based on pre-custody attributes is much more likely to be involved in incidents, grievances, and violence while in custody. This may have implications for risk stratification of incoming offenders.

Leuprecht C, Skillicorn DB, Bright D.

Use of Religion in Blame Avoidance in a Competitive Authoritarian Regime: Turkish Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet)

Blame avoidance has been one of the most applied strategies by policy makers in both democratic and non-democratic regimes to avoid responsibility and accountability in cases of failure and tragic events. It is also known that politicians have used religion for Machiavellian purposes, as exactly advised by Machiavelli. However, a systematic empirical analysis of how religion is used for blame avoidance by politicians has not been conducted. In this article, we aim to address this gap by examining the empirical data derived from the weekly Friday sermon texts produced by Turkey’s Directorate of Religious Affairs and delivered in more than 90 thousand mosques every week to a large segment of the population in Turkey, where the majority claims to be religious. Starting with its violent response to the peaceful Gezi protests in 2013, the ruling AKP has opened up a new phase in Turkish political history by resorting to civilizational populism: it blamed the Western world for financing and masterminding the protests, using the protestors as internal pawns to attack Turkey and the Muslim World, suppressed the protests brutally and entered into a populist authoritarian regime. Our paper shows, following this turn, how the Diyanet sermons started using religion to help with the AKP’s blame avoidance. The Diyanet either parroted the AKP’s conspiratorial narrative or tried to convince the citizens that all negativities are works of God and with these humans are being tested by God. The AKP’s use of religion to avoid blame is a text-book case of how both a religious institution and religious discourse can be used to help the incumbent avoid responsibility. Whenever, there was a problem that would the AKP votes, the Diyanet’s sermons tried to shift the blame to either God or citizens or conspiratorial enemies.

Yilmaz I, Albayrak I, Erturk O.

Situating the Father: Strengthening Interdisciplinary Collaborations between Sociology, History and the Emerging POHaD Paradigm

(1) Background: Albeit the main focus remains largely on mothers, in recent years Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) scientists, including epigeneticists, have started to examine how a father’s environment affects disease risk in children and argued that more attention needs to be given to father’s health-related behaviors for their influence on offspring at preconception (i.e., sperm health) as well as paternal lifestyle influences over the first 1000 days. This research ushers in a new paternal origins of health and disease (POHaD) paradigm and is considered a welcome equalization to the overemphasis on maternal influences. Epigeneticists are excited by the possibilities of the POHaD paradigm but are also cautious about how to interpret data and avoid biased impression of socio-biological reality. (2) Methods: We review sociological and historical literatures on the intersection of gender, food and diet across different social and historical contexts to enrich our understanding of the father; (3) Results: Sociological and historical research on family food practices and diet show that there are no “fathers” in the abstract or vacuum, but they are differently classed, racialized and exist in socially stratified situations where choices may be constrained or unavailable. This confirms that epigeneticists researching POHaD need to be cautious in interpreting paternal and maternal dietary influences on offspring health; (4) Conclusions: We suggest that interdisciplinary approach to this new paradigm, which draws on sociology, history and public health, can help provide the social and historical context for interpreting and critically understanding paternal lifestyles and influences on offspring health.

Mayes C, Lawson-Boyd E, Meloni M.

Truth-telling about a settler-colonial legacy: decolonizing possibilities?

In 2017, the Uluru Statement calling for Voice, Treaty and Truth was released by Australia’s Referendum Council. The Uluru Statement calls for a Makarrata Commission to oversee a process of ‘agreement-making’ and ‘truth-telling’. I argue that it was in the regional dialogues held by the Referendum Council prior to the release of the Uluru Statement that this demand for truth-telling was substantively articulated by dialogue participants. This article explores this grassroots invocation of truth-telling within the context of the desire for political transformation, most recently expressed in the Uluru Statement. I argue that truth-telling is conceptualized by regional dialogue participants as an opportunity for First Nations and non-Indigenous Australians to participate as equals in a process of place-based dialogic engagement about the ‘truths’ of colonial history that may or may not lead to local reconciliation. This type of ‘agonistic’ political encounter, therefore, does not assume an outcome of national or even local reconciliation. I contend that these types of encounters may have the potential to create local decolonizing spaces in which more equal terms of association are negotiated. However, they could also be appropriated to pursue ideological forms of consensus that undermine this possibility, as occurred in previous periods of Australian history.

Barolsky V.

Religious Populisms in the Asia Pacific

Most of the literature on religion’s relationship with populism is Eurocentric and has so far focused on European populist party discourses and, to a degree, on the United States, in particular, on the Christian identity populism of the Tea Party and the Trump movement within the Republican Party. However, across the Asia-Pacific region, religion has become an important component of populist discourses. It has been instrumentalised by populists in many nations in the region, including some of the most populous countries in the world, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan. Moreover, the relationship between religions other than Christianity and populism has all too rarely been studied, except for Turkey. This paper therefore surveys the Asia-Pacific region to comprehend how populists in the region incorporate religion into their discourses and the impact religious populism has on Asia-Pacific societies. It asks two questions: “What role does religion play in populist discourses?” and “How has religion’s incorporation into populist discourse impacted society?” To answer these questions, the paper examines four nations which have recently been ruled by governments espousing, to different degrees and in different ways, religious populism: India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Sri Lanka. By choosing these nations, we can examine the relationship between populism and Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism, and between religion and populism within a variety of religious, ethnic, and political contexts. The paper argues that religion is instrumentalised in populist discourses across the Asia-Pacific region in a variety of ways. First, religion is used to construct ingroups and outgroups, which serve a populist narrative in which the religion of the ingroup is superior yet threatened by the religion(s) of the outgroup(s). Second, religion is used to empower religious authorities, which support populist parties and movements. Third, religion is instrumentalised by populists in order to frame themselves, and in particular their leader, as a sacred or holy figure. The paper also argues that religion’s incorporation into populist discourse has impacted society by legitimising authoritarianism, increasing religious divisions, and justifying the oppression of religious minorities. The paper concludes by noting some differences between populists in Europe and the Asia-Pacific region.

Yilmaz I, Morieson N.

Investigating disparity in access to Australian clinical genetic health services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

Globally, there is a recognised need that all populations should be able to access the benefits of genomics and precision medicine. However, achieving this remains constrained by a paucity of data that quantifies access to clinical genomics, particularly amongst Indigenous populations. Using administrative data from clinical genetic health services across three Australian jurisdictions (states/territories), we investigate disparities in the scheduling and attendance of appointments among Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people, compared to non-Indigenous people. For 14,870 appointments scheduled between 2014–2018, adjusted Multivariate Poisson Regression models revealed that Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people were scheduled fewer appointments (IRR 0.73 [0.68–0.80], <0.001) and attended at lower rates (IRR 0.85 [0.78–0.93], <0.001). Within this population, adults, females, remote residents, and those presenting in relation to cancer or prenatal indications experienced the greatest disparity in access. These results provide important baseline data related to disparities in access to clinical genomics in Australia.

Luke J, Dalach P, Tuer L, Savarirayan R, Ferdinand A, McGaughran J, Kowal E, Massey L, Garvey G, Dawkins H, Jenkins M, Paradies Y, Pearson G, Stutterd CA, Baynam G, Kelaher M.

Everyday peace as a theory to explain victims’ peacemaking actions in intimate partner violence situations

This paper assesses the transferability of the concept of everyday peace, developed in the conflict and peace studies literature, to practices utilised by people experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). The relevance of everyday peace to IPV is assessed by mapping typologies of the concept against behaviour that victims implement to manage and survive abusive relationships. To collect these data, experienced family violence practitioners were asked to recount practice-based information about everyday strategies that victims use to avoid triggering or to de-escalate a perpetrator, thereby minimising immediate harm coming to themselves or others. Theming these behaviours against typologies of everyday peace demonstrated the significant relevance of this theory to IPV. As such, we suggest that everyday peace is a useful conceptual framework to apply to family violence. Our analysis finds that the everyday peace framework is particularly helpful for exploring victim agency in these contexts, reframing mundane and everyday strategies as agentic. In addition, everyday peace offers a means for better understanding victims’ actions, which could help develop more effective service responses supporting choice and agency in IPV situations.

Kelly LM, Ware A, Hall R.

The “White middle-class farming woman”: Instagram and settler colonialism in contemporary rural Australia

In nations where colonialism persists such as Australia, scholars have identified the hegemony of a morally infused white farming imaginary. While this construction has traditionally been invested in heteropatriarchal ideologies our aim in this paper is to demonstrate how, in recent years, white middle-class farming women have been woven into this narrative through settler colonial logics. We take up this contention in the Australian context examining 100 posts to two major institutional Instagram accounts that feature farming women: @invisfarmer and @agrifuturesau. Using the lens of settler colonialism, and a visual and textual analysis, we identify how the “white middle-class woman farmer” is framed by discourses of white feminism and invisibility/visibility. We reveal the emergence of a narrow farming woman aesthetic which is bolstered by narratives which celebrate the “successful female farmer” and the “successful female farm leader”. In concluding the paper, we discuss the implications of the gendering of the white farming imaginary, and make a call for gender and rural studies scholars to de-centre and disaggregate the “white middle-class settler farming woman” subject position, through attending to settler colonialism and Indigenous scholarship in understandings of Australian rurality.

rural

Castro LR, Pini B.

Racialized (Im)mobilities: The Pandemic and Sinophobia in Australia

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted countries all over the world, not only in relation to public health responses, but on multiple other societal levels. The pandemic has uncovered structural inequalities within and across societies and highlighted how race remains a powerful lens through which public policy responses are constructed and pursued. This paper examines (im)mobilities in Australia in the context of Asian, and more specifically Chinese-Australian citizens and residents, and how these have been framed in racialized discourses that justified exclusionary practices reminiscent of the White Australia ideology. The paper focuses on how Chinese Australians’ mobilities have been (mis)represented and attacked in public and political discourse with particular attention to the situation of Chinese international students’ (im)mobilities. Our conceptual attention in this paper, however, is not only on the racialization of mobilities but also immobilities, underpinned by an understanding of the relationality between Othered ‘migrants’ and hosts, as well as between mobility and immobility. We conclude by discussing future patterns of mobility, how these will impact prospective migrants including international students, and what future forms of mobilities might mean for Australia as a country highly dependent on migrants for its economic, social and cultural development.

Ang S, Mansouri F.

Migration, class and intra-distinctions of whiteness in the making of inland rural Victoria

This paper examines how white rural identities have been historically produced and transformed over time as a result of colonial migration regimes, the racialisation of labour, intra-distinctions of classed whiteness and projects of social mobility. White identities in settler Australia’s ethnically diverse rural towns and cities are commonly depicted as reified, homogenous and fixed-in-place. In rural-focused sociological research, any recognition of whiteness is typically in response to classed stigma around “failed” whiteness, or in discussions of a white-centred “rural cosmopolitanism”. Yet critical Indigenous studies and critical rural studies scholars have long shown that the very ubiquitous construction of whiteness acts as a framing device in the imagining of Australian “rurality”, one which obscures ongoing legacies of power and structures of rural inequality. In this paper I further this agenda by examining how whiteness has been historically produced in one rural, inland city of south-eastern Australia. First, I discuss the colonial projects of race-making and class mobility which were embedded in the region’s rural irrigation schemes of the late nineteenth century. Second, I examine how Australia’s post-war migration programs, the racialisation of labour and intra-distinctions of class all redefined the boundaries of whiteness over the twentieth century, and consider how this contributed to shaping rural social geographies. Drawing on a range of historical and contemporary sources, I show how white rural identities in settler Australia, rather than being reified and immutable, have been historically created under specific social, political and economic conditions.

Butler R.

Making place in a place that doesn’t recognise you: Racialised labour and intergenerational belonging in an Australian horticultural region

This paper examines the labour experiences of Pacific Islander people living in the Greater Shepparton Region in south-eastern Australia, and the forms of both intergenerational belonging and exclusion that are produced at the intersection of racialised labour and place-making in the settler-colonial state. Shepparton’s Pacific Islander community, which has been resident in the area for over thirty years, is heavily involved in seasonal horticultural labour, forming part of an industry workforce that also includes workers from other settled migrant-background communities, refugees and asylum seekers, as well as large number of temporary migrant workers. Nevertheless, Pacific Islanders in the region often feel themselves, and their labour, unrecognised within the context of established narratives that discursively construct localness as white. Here, we pay particular attention to the experiences of Pasifika youth who, in reflecting on the labour of their parents, offer potent perspectives on the kinds of precarious belonging this labour produces. These contrast sharply with the celebrated forms of intergenerational belonging and claims to place that adhere to the labour of white farmers, and that have their origins in the colonial dispossessions on which the region’s industry is founded. Still, Pasifika people in the region do make place for themselves and for their youth, both through the waged labour they perform as well as through diverse forms of community labour that also situate them in relation to, and with, Indigenous community. Attention to these diverse forms of labour expands the terms through which the work and labour experiences of migrant and other non-white people are usually figured, and highlights the complex, intergenerational entwining of colonialism and racialisation in white-majority rural places.

Stead VC, Taula L, Silaga M.

Migrant youth and the idea of the ‘migrant experience’

The article opens a conversation around what constitutes a ‘migration experience’ by identifying and examining various analytical frameworks that constitute an ‘experience’ as migration. Unlike previous approaches to describing young people’s ‘migrant experiences’, I do not take the notion as self-explanatory; rather, what we come to know as the ‘migrant experience’ hides various epistemological and political processes. I begin with an analysis of different conceptualisations of experience such as mediated, unmediated and experience as strangeness. The discussion then moves onto how these inform the spatial/temporal, critical and phenomenological accounts of an event known as the migration experience. The second part of the article demonstrates what empirical analysis may entail when we examine the idea of the migration experience as an analytical category. By drawing on my students’ self-reflective papers on their migration experience, specifically their stories on being Othered in the host and ‘home’ country and their experience of hybrid identities, we open an analytical space that reveals constructive tensions and synergies among the analytical frameworks. In so doing, the article illuminates and contributes to conceptualising the ‘migrant experience’ as both a category of analysis and practice.

Marotta VP.

Selling (Con)spirituality and COVID-19 in Australia: Convictions, Complexity and Countering Dis/misinformation

Conspirituality—the merger of conspiracy theories and spirituality—has attracted significant global media and scholarly attention during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article expands upon the ‘two core’ conspiritual convictions proposed by Ward and Voas that ‘1) a secret group covertly controls, or is trying to control, the political and social order, and 2) humanity is undergoing a “paradigm shift” in consciousness’. We identify an additional ten key convictions central to (con)spirituality, including those that result in vaccine hesitancy and/or refusal. We chose to bracket the ‘con’ to problematize the term, and to encompass a wider spectrum of spiritual beliefs and practices, including those that are non-controversial, those that may be deceptive cons, and/or those that draw on conspiracy theories. The article presents an analysis of these twelve (con)spiritual convictions, focusing on a sample of ‘Aussie Warriors’ selling (con)spirituality, and also on influencers attempting to counter the spread of dis/misinformation within wellness circles. In so doing, the article provides a more nuanced understanding of (con) spirituality and vaccine hesitancy, and a greater knowledge of the benefits and risks of spiritual practices and ideas during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

Halafoff A, Marriott E, Fitzpatrick R, Weng E.

Unifying, Comparative, Critical and Metacritical: Domenico Losurdo’s Nietzsche as Aristocratic Rebel

This review essay responds critically to the English translation of Domenico Losurdo’s monumental Friedrich Nietzsche: Aristocratic Rebel. It sets out to clearly identify and examine Losurdo’s two tasks in Nietzsche: firstly, his reconstruction of Nietzsche’s intellectual itinerary, from his earliest works until his descent into madness, in the context of later nineteenth-century social, political, philosophical, and eugenic sources; and secondly, to “interpret the interpretations”, and understand how Nietzsche’s avowed “aristocratic radicalism” could have informed thinkers from across the political spectrum, at the same time as Losurdo contests the cogency of “progressive” readings of Nietzsche as based upon a selective “hermeneutics of innocence” which involves suppressing the recurrent, darker registers of his texts. The essay also unpacks Losurdo’s two hermeneutic strategies in this magnum opus. Firstly, we examine his “unifying” claim that Nietzsche, as a great thinker, had a coherent but evolving vision, from Birth of Tragedy through to his final works, unified by his metapolitical intention to overcome democratic, liberal and socialist modern egalitarianisms, by tracking them back to their roots in the Old Testament and classical antiquity. Secondly, we critique his contextualizing methodology which resituates the author of the “untimely meditations” within the debates of his day concerning modernity, slavery, liberalism, socialism, massification, Darwinism, and eugenics. To close, I proffer some brief comments concerning the significance of Losurdo’s work in the present moment, as the Far Right globally reasserts itself.

Sharpe M.

The Glory of Nicocles: Foucault’s Greeks and the Inegalitarian Underside of the Professional-Managerial Class

A strange thing confronts the critical reader of Michel Foucault’s famous interviews on the “aesthetics of existence” he finds in the classical Greek ethicists. On the one hand, Foucault disavows any nostalgia for a past age, or narrative of some “fall” from a pristine beginning into the forms of modern disciplinary and biopower his 1970s works had examined (294-5)0F1: “no, I am not looking for an alternative” (256). He does not find the classical Greeks exemplary (259). The ethical practices of “care of the self” which he examines in the History of Sexuality volumes were, first of all, the province of a tiny male elite. “The Greek ethics of pleasure is linked to a virile society, to dissymmetry, exclusion of the other, an obsession with penetration, and a kind of threat of being dispossessed of you own energy, and so on. All that is quite disgusting!” (258) This was an ethics governed by the imperative “not to be a slave” (285). As such, it was political all the way up, or down. “The relation with politics is obvious” (293): tied to a deeply inegalitarian social order, one in which slaves and women were considered passive and incapable of a fully ethical life (285), and configured on the basis of a self-politicizing internalization of external relations of domination (one must master one’s pleasures and drives, so as not to be enslaved by them). “Freedom for the Greeks signifies non-slavery …. The problem is already entirely political” (285). If this was an “aesthetics” of self-beautification, Foucault avows, it was also “both aesthetic and political, which were directly linked … political power, glory, immortality, and beauty are all linked at a certain moment. That’s the mode d’assujettissement…” (265). But this is bad, seemingly, in some moments in the interviews: “why couldn’t everyone’s life become a work of art?”, Foucault for instance asks in an egalitarian voice (261).

Sharpe M.

The Islamic State’s Targeting of Christians and their Heritage: Genocide, Displacement and Reconciliation

The rapid advance of the ‘Islamic State’ (IS) across Syria and Iraq from 2013 had devastating consequences for the myriad peoples and heritage sites of the region. However, few studies have documented how those most affected perceive the destruction of their heritage, its complex relationship to their persecution and displacement, and the role they see for reconstruction in fostering peace. This paper addresses this lacuna by analysing interviews with Syrian and Iraqi Christians along three specific but inter-connected axes. First, in terms of genocide and belonging, respondents reported experiencing the destruction as a key component of the broader persecution, leading to a profound rupture of their sense of communal identity. Second, the axis of displacement and return reveals that the destruction was a key catalyst in their decision to flee, shaped their experiences of exile and attitudes to return. And finally, along the axis of reconstruction and reconciliation respondents held complex and divergent views on the extent to which rebuilding could play a role in fostering peace. The article concludes by noting that the insights gleaned from this case advances studies of heritage in conflict and that being sensitive to local sentiment could enhance projects to reconstruct heritage in conflict.

Isakhan B, Shahab S.

Between surveillance and technological solutionism: A critique of privacy-preserving apps for COVID-19 contact-tracing

In this article, we examine the rise of contact-tracing apps during the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic as a new form of technological solutionism – a technological or techno-social fix that can be deployed at national scale in response to an urgent, supranational problem. A dystopian view saw the rapid development and proliferation of COVID-19 contact-tracing apps as a vanguard technology for surveillance. Expediently deployed as a technological fix to the pandemic, contact-tracing was seen to threaten to transform a state of emergency into a state of exception, under which accepted or constitutional laws and norms might be suspended. Here, we extend early critiques of the contact-tracing app as a ‘technofix’ to argue the growing intervention of global technology corporations in digital governance and affairs of national sovereignty throughout the COVID-19 pandemic represents a new frontier of state–industrial surveillance that exploits people’s pre-investment in and dependence on technology corporations. We exemplify this with the ‘technofix’ of the Google–Apple Exposure Notification (GAEN) framework and critically examine the notion of a decentralised and privacy-preserving Bluetooth-based contact-tracing framework proposed by global technology corporations that may threaten state sovereignty when determining public health responses to current or future crises.

Mann M, Mitchell P, Foth M.

Neoliberalism, COVID-19 and conspiracy: pandemic management strategies and the far-right social turn

Neoliberal pandemic management strategies during the 2019–2022 COVID-19 virus pandemic rendered vulnerable to the disease, people in precarious work, with underlying health issues, and experiencing other forms of social discrimination and disadvantage. Herd immunity strategies designed to address the economic growth imperatives of neoliberal societies were often contrary to scientific advice, leading to high infection rates and the mass death of, in particular, essential workers in manufacturing, healthcare, and service provision. At times, health policies and political rhetoric scapegoated marginalised communities for the spread of the disease, subjecting them to the pandemic’s more harmful social and economic effects. These ideological-political environments also provided context for accelerationist and conspiratorial narratives about COVID-19 communicated among wider political networks, within economically-driven environments of counterfactual mass news and social media. Responding to this situation, this paper examines how certain pandemic responses from government and non-government actors collectively contributed toward racialised, classist social discrimination in responses to COVID-19, such that they might be said to constitute an intra-pandemic far-right ‘social turn’.

Richards I.

Mapping the scientific knowledge and approaches to defining and measuring hate crime, hate speech, and hate incidents

The overall aim of the review is to map the definitions and measurement tools used to capture the whole spectrum of hate motivated behaviors, including hate crime, hate speech and hate incidents. This will benefit the field of hate studies by providing a baseline that can inform the building of cumulative knowledge and comparative research. The first review objective is to map definitions of hate crime, hate incidents, hate speech, and surrogate terms. Specific research questions underpinning this objective are: (a) How are hate crimes, hate speech and hate incidents defined in the academic, legal, policy, and programming literature?; (b) What are the concepts, parameters and criteria that qualify a behavior as being hate crime, hate incident or hate speech?; and (c) What are the most common concepts, parameters and criteria found across definitions? What are the differences between definitions and the elements they contain? The second review objective is to map the tools used to measure the prevalence of hate crime, hate incidents, hate speech, and surrogate terms. Specific research questions underpinning this objective are: (a) How are definitions operationalised to measure hate crimes, hate speech, and hate incidents?; and (b) How valid and reliable are these measures?

Vergani M, Perry B, Freilich J, Chermak S, Scrivens R, Link R.

Protecting communities during the COVID-19 global health crisis: health data research and the international use of contact tracing technologies

Seen presently during the global COVID-19 global health crisis are the ways government agencies are enabled by digital data collection through the development of contact tracing technologies (CTT) and mobile-based tracking in their effort to limit the spread of the COVID-19 coronavirus. While recent research has focused on contact tracing and privacy (Simko et al. 2020. Contact tracing and privacy: studying opinion and preferences), contact tracing and data protection (Abeler et al. 2020. JMIR mHealth uHealth 8(4): e19359) contact tracing system and information security considerations (Gvili, 2020. Security analysis of the Covid-19 contact tracing specifications by Apple inc. and Google inc), CTT and the data collected and curated have not been framed to date via their intersections with health-datafication and the research participant. As this article outlines, each is strongly linked to public health, healthcare industries and to modalities of capturing and producing knowledge that is expected to help in addressing public health concerns. Where different countries and regions are implementing a range of social distancing and/or social isolation recommendations, some have introduced contact tracing and quick response (QR) barcodes on mobile device apps. To additionally explore access, uptake and use that accompany such technologies, the International Responses to COVID-19 Contact Tracing: COVID-19 APP Uptake and Use Survey was developed and used with participants living in Singapore, Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom. The article concludes that in the process and counter to the common good or public interest objective that all are kept safe, new forms of risk and exposure are being produced.

Cinque T.

Tech money in civil society: whose interests do digital rights organisations represent?

This article explores philanthropic interactions between ‘Big Tech’ and digital rights civil society organizations (DRCSOs) to enhance understanding of the alignment and misalignment of interests between these groups. ‘Big Tech’ wields political influence by distributing cash to research and policy organizations. Academic research supporting ‘Big Tech’ business practices is marshalled to support their political lobbying efforts, while civil society policy work shapes the narrative what dimensions of these businesses should be regulated (or not). While academic work is typically presented as a cool analysis of the relevant issues, DRCSOs purport to represent the interests of individuals and groups negatively affected by those business practices. Through empirical tracking of direct financial flows, as well as an analysis of cash distributions via class action litigation settlements, we show that certain DRCSOs have long-term financial relationships with ‘Big Tech’ that trouble our understanding of the alignments or misalignments of their interests. Through that analysis, we question where and how civil society fits into automated and algorithmic cultural production and perpetuation, and the way that Big Tech uses and guards the economic capital generated through its dominance over ‘automated culture’.

Goldenfein J, Mann M.

Women, religion, and digital counter-publics: introduction

Even after decades of critical scholarship on religion and the Internet, a rapidly changing field and a febrile global political climate demand renewed questions about the relationships between online spaces and gender-related activism. This is particularly the case, in the post-#MeToo era, in relation to women and religion. While digital activism both promotes and challenges gender inequalities, reflecting prejudices apparent in the offline world, women and men continue to create and adapt online spaces that question received wisdom about their roles in religious traditions. We argue that using Nancy Fraser’s concept of the ‘subaltern counter-public’, adapted by Marc Lamont-Hill as the ‘digital counter-public’, allows us to explore the extent to which digital spaces enable traditional religious authority structures to be challenged in ways that might not be possible in the offline environment. The aim of this Special Issue Section is to provide four detailed case study examples, drawn from Sikhism, Wicca, Hinduism, and Buddhism, across varied geographical and political contexts, in order to examine how women have engaged the digital to create spaces that challenge mainstream narratives about their religious attainment and belonging, raising key questions for the ongoing study of religion online.

Starkey C, Tomalin E, Halafoff A.

Gender equality and digital counter-publics in global Buddhism: bhikkhuni ordination in the Thai Forest Tradition in Australia

Gender discrepancies persist in Buddhist societies and institutions, linked to cultural and religious beliefs and practices that allocate a lower status to women. In some Buddhist traditions, nuns cannot ordain to the same level as monks, most Buddhist archetypes of enlightenment remain male, and men hold positions of power and privilege within the majority of Buddhist organisations. This article focuses on recent controversy surrounding bhikkhuni ordination in the Thai Forest Tradition in Australia and the role of the Internet in these debates. The authors draw on data collected in interviews with key figures in Buddhism in Australia, including Venerable Chi Kwang Sunim, Ayya Nirodha, Ajahn Brahmavamso Mahathera, and Bhante Sujato, recorded as part of the “Buddhist Life Stories of Australia” research project. We argue that the international Buddhist women’s movement and its allies are creating and using digital counter-publics to advance gender parity in contemporary Buddhism. Online activism has not only accelerated the pace of progressive social change, but it has also been used by more conservative actors to try to thwart these changes and maintain their authority, although less successfully.

Halafoff A, Tomalin E, Starkey C.

“Good to Say Out Loud”: Researching Love across Class in Contemporary Australia

In this article, we argue that romantic partnerships forged across class difference offer important insights into how class, privilege and inequality are experienced in Australia. We draw on new research into cross-class relationships to attend to the role that deeply enculturated class-based orientations play in the everyday lives of couples from different class backgrounds, while also exploring their entanglement with race, migration, gender and sexuality. We contend that documenting and understanding people’s negotiations of such relationships through the lens of class difference has the potential to enhance broader understandings of what class is and means in contemporary Australia, a society long invested in egalitarianism as cultural mythology. In this article, we map the first stage of this interview-based research. We outline its scholarly basis and genesis before discussing two key sites of difference and negotiation within cross-class relationships—approaches to spending and saving money, and orientations to holidays, leisure and the use of time more broadly. At this early stage of the research, we describe ourselves as invited into explicit and richly complex conversations about class that have already begun for these couples, as a result of friction, affinities, earnest interest, amusement or desire.

Butler R, Vincent E.

Preferences for return of germline genome sequencing results for cancer patients and their genetic relatives in a research setting

Germline genome sequencing (GS) holds great promise for cancer prevention by identifying cancer risk and guiding prevention strategies, however research evidence is mixed regarding patient preferences for receiving GS results. The aim of this study was to discern preferences for return of results by cancer patients who have actually undergone GS. We conducted a mixed methods study with a cohort of cancer probands (n = 335) and their genetic relatives (n = 199) undergoing GS in a research setting. Both groups completed surveys when giving consent. A subset of participants (n = 40) completed semi-structured interviews. A significantly higher percentage of probands thought people would like to be informed about genetic conditions for which there is prevention or treatment that can change cancer risk compared to conditions for which there is no prevention or treatment (93% [311] versus 65% [216]; p < 0.001). Similar results were obtained for relatives (91% [180] versus 61% [121]; p < 0.001). Themes identified in the analysis of interviews were: (1) Recognised benefits of GS, (2) Balancing benefits with risks, (3) Uncertain results are perceived as unhelpful and (4) Competing obligations. While utility was an important discriminator in what was seen as valuable for this cohort, there was a variety of responses. In view of varied participant preferences regarding return of results, it is important to ensure patient understanding of test validity and identify individual choices at the time of consent to GS. The nature and value of the information, and a contextual understanding of researcher obligations should guide result return.

Best MC, Butow P, Savard J, Jacobs C, Bartley N, Davies G, Napier CE, Ballinger ML, Thomas DM, Biesecker B, Tucker KM, Juraskova I, Meiser B, Schlub T, Newson AJ.

A biosocial return to race? A cautionary view for the postgenomic era

Recent studies demonstrating epigenetic and developmental sensitivity to early environments, as exemplified by fields like the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and environmental epigenetics, are bringing new data and models to bear on debates about race, genetics, and society. Here, we first survey the historical prominence of models of environmental determinism in early formulations of racial thinking to illustrate how notions of direct environmental effects on bodies have been used to naturalize racial hierarchy and inequalities in the past. Next, we conduct a scoping review of postgenomic work in environmental epigenetics and DOHaD that looks at the role of race/ethnicity in human health (2000–2021). Although there is substantial heterogeneity in how race is conceptualized and interpreted across studies, we observe practices that may unwittingly encourage typological thinking, including: using DNA methylation as a novel marker of racial classification; neglect of variation and reversibility within supposedly homogenous racial groups; and a tendency to label and reify whole groups as pathologized or impaired. Even in the very different politico-economic and epistemic context of contemporary postgenomic science, these trends echo deeply held beliefs in Western thinking which claimed that different environments shape different bodies and then used this logic to argue for essential differences between Europeans and non-Europeans. We conclude with a series of suggestions on interpreting and reporting findings in these fields that we feel will help researchers harness this work to benefit disadvantaged groups while avoiding the inadvertent dissemination of new and old forms of stigma or prejudice.

Meloni M, Moll T, Issaka A, Kuzawa CW.

A Post-Capitalocentric Critique of Digital Technology and Environmental Harm: New Directions at the Intersection of Digital and Green Criminology

Only recently have scholars of criminology begun to examine a wider spectrum of the effects of digital technologies beyond ‘cybercrime’ to include human rights, privacy, data extractivism and surveillance. Such accounts, however, remain anthropocentric and capitalocentric. They do not fully consider the environmental impacts caused by the manufacture, consumption, use and disposal of digital technologies under conditions of ecologically unequal exchange. The worst impacts of extractivism and pollution are borne by societies and ecosystems in the world’s economic periphery and contribute to an acceleration of planetary ecocide. Three examples illustrate our argument: (1) deep-sea mining of metals and minerals; (2) the planned obsolescence of digital devices while limiting the right to repair; and (3) the disposal of e-waste. Acknowledging the urgent need to reorient the trajectory of technology innovation towards more-than-human futures, we advance some ideas from the field of design research—that is, the field of scholarly inquiry into design practices—on how to decouple technological progress from neoliberal economic growth. We venture outside criminology and offer a glimpse into how design researchers have recently begun a similar reflective engagement with post-anthropocentric critiques, which can inspire new directions for research across digital and green criminology.

Bedford L, Mann M, Foth M, Walters R.

Iran’s Feminist School in the Diaspora: Dynamics of Decline and Demobilization

This article explores the mechanisms behind the demobilization of the Feminist School, the self-proclaimed ‘intellectual wing’ of the Iranian women’s movement, which was established as an online forum in 2008. For a short time, the Feminist School was at the forefront of framing the Iranian women’s movement and provided the conceptual tools for its strategy setting. In the years following the disputed presidential election of 2009, however, many of the School’s founding members were forced to leave Iran. Although they attempted to continue their work in diaspora, by 2015 the School was in decline. This article analyses the demobilization of the Feminist School using data collected in interviews with some of its founding members. The authors argue that despite the dedication of activists in the diaspora, and their willingness to continue their efforts to fight for gender justice at the grassroots, their capacity to do so was compromised by extreme top-down tensions between Iran and ‘the West’. Those tensions caused serious security concerns and gave rise to an ever-widening conceptual and affectual gap between domestic and diasporic activists/advocates. This empirical study adds to scholarship on the demobilization of transnational and diasporic movements that seek to influence the policies and politics of highly repressive homelands.

Nasirpour S, Barlow R, Akbarzadeh S.

The Her Tribe and His Tribe Aboriginal-Designed Empowerment Programs

This study documents evaluation of the Her Tribe and His Tribe Aboriginal-designed empowerment pilot programs. The programs were designed to support Victorian Aboriginal people to strengthen mental health, social and emotional wellbeing, community connection, and to reduce psychological distress. A second aim was to explore participants’ experiences of the programs, including the feasibility and acceptability of the evaluation component. Her Tribe ran for 16 weeks and His Tribe for 12 weeks. In total, 43 women and 26 men completed assessments at pre- and post-program completion, and 17 and 10, respectively, participated in yarning circles at the 6-month follow up. For both programs, there were significant increases in participants’ access to personal strengths and resources, relationship–community–cultural strengths and resources, and decreases in psychological distress. These changes were associated with small to moderate effects that were maintained at the 6-month follow up. There was a significant increase in aerobic fitness for female but not male participants, and no significant changes in weight for either group. Participants described a range of benefits from the programs, including positive elements and areas for improvement. They also viewed the evaluation as feasible and acceptable, and the findings of value. The outcomes from both pilot programs provide evidence that Aboriginal-designed programs, with a focus on physical and cultural activities, can help to strengthen mental health and wellbeing, community connection, and reduce psychological distress in Victorian Aboriginal communities.

Gee G, Sheridan S, Charles L, Dayne L, Joyce L, Stevens J, Paradies Y, Hulbert C, Haslam N, Thorpe R, Thorpe L, Thorpe A, Stewart P, Austin L, Lyons L, Belfrage M, Warber R, Paxton A, Thompson L.

Screening Heritage: Critical Heritage and Film Through the Example of “Taq Kasra: Wonder of Architecture” Documentary

This paper probes the process of heritage production in documentary films with a specific focus on the documentary film Taq Kasra Wonder of Architecture (Akbarzadeh, Pejman. 2018. Taq Kasra Wonder of Architecture. Amsterdam: Persian Dutch Network. www.taqkasra.com.), which tells the story of the pre-Islamic Persian/Iranian historical site of Taq Kasra (the Arch of Ctesiphon), presently located in Iraq. The paper situates the film within a broader context of documentaries about Persian edifices in the region and draws on primary interview material with the documentary maker Pejman Akbarzadeh. Through its analyses, the paper shows how, especially in the Iranian setting, a documentary film can engage and (re)produce heritage, and how, when compared to that setting, Taq Kasra exposes persistent aspects of cultural politics within the Islamic Republic since its establishment after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 and Saddam Hussein’s policies. In doing so, it is argued that the film provides a mode of critical enquiry into heritage in current historical and political circumstances in Iran. The paper addresses a lacuna in both critical heritage and film studies, namely, the analysis and interpretation of the making of heritage in film and as film.

Mozaffari A, Zarandona JAG.

Mastering humanitarianism? A survey of postgraduate humanitarian courses

Humanitarian events are increasing globally, both in number and intensity. In response, the international community spends approximately US$30 billion annually to alleviate both the immediate consequences of these climatic, geographic, and human-induced events but also to support mitigation and recovery. Over the past two decades, the humanitarian sector has increasingly professionalised. One under-studied aspect of this professionalisation is an increase in postgraduate studies in humanitarian action over the last 20 years. Despite this increase, there is no agreement on core curriculum or pedagogy across humanitarian studies courses. How do current Masters of Humanitarian Assistance (MHA) offerings converge and differ, and how can such courses further their contribution to the humanitarian endeavour? This paper surveys 26 anglophone courses offered in the United States, Europe, the United Kingdom, Australia, India, and Nigeria, exploring key characteristics of course entry requirements, flexibility, research, practical components, and academic foci. It does not recommend what a core curriculum for humanitarian courses should be, but does argue that core curriculum for humanitarian courses should be identified by relevant and diverse stakeholders such as affected communities, humanitarian agencies, disaster management bodies, and governments, to ensure that courses in this field provide appropriate learning outcomes. The paper suggests how such a ‘charter’ may be developed.

Stibral AA, Zadeh-Cummings N, Clarke M.

Strengthening everyday peace formation after ethnic cleansing: operationalising a framework in Myanmar’s Rohingya conflict

The concept of everyday peace largely draws on research that, to date, has sought more to explain observed social practices than inform peace interventions. This paper presents a case study of an attempt to operationalise the concept into local non-governmental organisation (NGO) programming, seeking to strengthen the formation of everyday peace between Rohingya and Rakhine communities in Myanmar after recent ethnic cleansing. This is believed to be the first attempt to operationalise everyday peace into NGO practice. The programme incorporates everyday peace components into an existing bottom-up development programme based around Freirian conscientisation, seeking to raise critical awareness of eight social practices seen to constitute everyday peace practice: avoidance, watching/reading, ambiguity, shielding, civility, reciprocity, solidarity and compromise. The paper presents and analyses new field data collected two years into implementation, comprising interviews with 15 local NGO staff/facilitators, and 12 focus groups (gender-segregated) with 84 participants from both Rohingya and Rakhine villages. The paper finds evidence of increased utilisation of these social practices and improved inter-village relations, even in the absence of macro-level peace efforts. While no panacea, and not as yet addressing the deep inequalities, injustices and vulnerabilities between Rohingya and Rakhine communities, this paper finds the approach has contributed to peace formation in this context.

Ware A, Ware V, Kelly LM.

Divisible Governance: Making Gas-fired Futures during Climate Collapse in Northern Australia

Despite widespread acceptance that their emissions accelerate climate change and its disastrous ecological effects, new fossil fuel extraction projects continue apace, further entrenching fossil fuel dependence, and thereby enacting particular climate futures. In this article, we examine how this is occurring in the case of a proposed onshore shale gas “fracking” industry in the remote Northern Territory of Australia, drawing on policy and legal documents and interviews with an enunciatory community of scientists, lawyers, activists, and policy makers to illustrate what we call “divisible governance.” Divisible governance—enacted through technical maneuvers of temporal and jurisdictional risk fragmentation—not only facilitates the piecemeal entrenchment of unsustainable extraction but also sustains ignorance on the part of this enunciatory community and the wider public about the impacts of such extraction and the manner in which it is both facilitated and regulated. Such governance regimes, we suggest, create felicitous conditions for governments to defer, forestall, or eliminate their accountability while regulating their way further and further into catastrophic climate change. Countering divisible governance begins, we suggest, by mapping the connections that it fragments.

Howey K, Neale T.

Coping with the ‘double bind’ through vlogging: pandemic digital citizenship of Chinese international students

The article examines the vlogging practices of Chinese international students during the COVID-19 pandemic and their positive roles in coping with the double bind. By doing thematic analysis of the content of vlog videos generated by Chinese international students on both Chinese and English audio-visual platforms, we identify three overarching themes of their vlogging stories: ‘everyday personal experience sharing’, ‘vlogger-generated citizen journalism’ and ‘producing counternarratives’. We argue that Chinese international students creatively practice ‘actualizing digital citizenship’ through dual vlogging. Their vlogging implies a strong sense of civic engagement, connectivity and empowerment, and is conducive to the self-resilience of the affected group as well as their identity and solidarity building in the crisis. Our research advocates for a shift of digital citizenship studies to recognize the flexible, individualized and loosely networked ‘actualizing digital citizenship’ practice. We also call attention to take the everyday digital practices of the international students seriously to understand their concerns, needs and resilience in the uncertain and difficult times in order to better support this vulnerable cohort.

Xu J, Zhao X.

Searching for diagnostic certainty, governing risk: Patients’ ambivalent experiences of medical testing

Diagnosis is pivotal to medicine’s epistemic system: it serves to explain individual symptoms, classify them into recognizable conditions and determine their prognosis and treatment. Medical tests, or investigative procedures for detecting and monitoring disease, play a central role in diagnosis. While testing promises diagnostic certainty or a definitive risk assessment, it often produces uncertainties and new questions which call for yet further tests. In short, testing, regardless of its specific application, is imbued with meaning and emotionally fraught. In this article, we explore individuals’ ambivalent experiences of testing as they search for diagnostic certainty, and the anxieties and frustrations of those for whom it remains elusive. Combining insights from sociological work on ambivalence and the biopolitics of health, and drawing on qualitative interviews with Australian healthcare recipients who have undergone testing in the context of clinical practice, we argue that these experiences are explicable in light of the contradictory impulses and tensions associated with what we term ‘bio-subjectification’. We consider the implications of our analysis in light of the development of new tests that produce ever finer delineations between healthy and diseased populations, concluding that their use will likely multiply uncertainties and heighten rather than lessen anxieties.

Pienaar K, Petersen A.

Australian Public Opinion Defence and Foreign Policy: Attitudes and Trends Since 1945

This book examines the impact of Australian public opinion towards defence and foreign policy from the mid-twentieth century to the present day. For most of this period, the public showed little interest in defence and security policy and possessed limited knowledge about the strategic options available. The principal post-war exception to this pattern is, of course, the Vietnam War, when political divisions over Australia’s support for the U.S.-led action eventually resulted in the withdrawal of troops in 1972. The period since 2001 has seen a fundamental change both in the public’s views of defence and foreign affairs, and in how these issues are debated by political elites. This has come about as a result of major changes in the strategic environment such as a heightened public awareness of terrorism, party political divisions over Australia’s military commitment to the 2003-11 Iraq War and the increasing overlap of economic and trade considerations with defence and foreign policies, which has increased the public’s interest in these issues. Combining the expertise of one of Australia’s foremost scholars of public opinion with that of an expert of international relations, particularly as pertains to Australia in Asia, this book will be a critical read for those wishing to understand Australia’s alliance with the U.S., interactions with Asia and China, and the distinctive challenges posed to Australia by its geographic position.

Chubb D, McAllister I.

Italian youth mobility: The case for a Mediterranean model of ‘family-centred’ mobile transitions

This article seeks to advance our understanding of contemporary transnational youth mobility, drawing on the concept ‘mobile transitions’ to explore scholarly approaches to the mobility practices of young Italians moving abroad. We present a critical literature review of the intersections of migration, youth and transition studies to argue that the literature on youth transnational mobility currently features two contrasting models comprising a ‘transitions-focused’ Global South model and an ‘experiential-focused’ Global North model. This bifurcation fails to account for emergent regional models of mobility that may help to sharpen scholarly understandings of a new generation of youth ‘on the move’. We propose an alternative model positioned somewhere along the spectrum between the Global North and Global South models, which we define as the Mediterranean model of ‘family-centred’ transnational youth mobility. This model reflects aspects of both privileged, experiential youth migrations, which tend to undervalue the impact on transitions to adulthood, and economically driven youth migrations, which tend to focus more directly on the economic dimensions of youth to adulthood transitions. The Mediterranean model highlights more broadly how mobility enables and shapes transitions, which are simultaneously driven by both economic imperatives and individual experiential desires, and mediated through family and culture.

Marchetti G, Baldassar L, Robertson S.

Big Data won’t feed the world: global agribusiness, digital imperialism, and the contested promises of a new Green Revolution

In the face of looming environmental crises and a swelling global population, Big Data’s acolytes envision a “digital revolution” as a solution for global hunger. Interrogating this promise, we argue that Big Data’s imagined futures articulate the realms of international development and smallholder agriculture in the Global South with an ongoing digital reorganisation of global capitalism—integrating farmers into new informational modes of production, and reshaping the nature of labour and human–environment relations in the process. This reorganisation must be located within a long history of crises and spatio-technical fixes for capital accumulation. More specifically, we situate the prefigurations of Big Data along a trajectory of capitalist technical innovations implicated in the propagation of colonial logics, particularly through the apparatuses of international development—for example, through the technical regimes of the “Green Revolution”. The rhetoric of Big Data and its applications within global food systems both reproduce earlier logics of primitive accumulation and colonial biopolitics, and extend them into new forms of digital imperialism that, we suggest, express incipient mutations in the nature of surplus value itself as it is retooled for the Anthropocene era. Big Data therefore portends novel forms of expropriation that are at once material and immaterial.

Giles D, Stead VC.

Industrial citizenship, workplace deliberation and participatory management in China: the deliberative polling experiment in a private firm

A variety of forms and practices of citizenship in China has been well studied, but, unfortunately, studies on industrial citizenship are missing. Moreover, while there has been a growing literature on Chinese workers and their relationship with management in the last decade or so, most of it has focussed on protest and litigation rather than on deliberation and industrial citizenship. This paper fills the intellectual gap by applying T. H. Marshall’s idea of industrial citizenship to workplaces in China and examining it through a case study of a workplace deliberation experiment. The workplace deliberation experiment showed that, first, workplace deliberation in China can be seen as a form of industrial citizenship and “participatory management”, which still retains an element of hierarchy, but falls short of the radical idea of industrial democracy and unionism. Second, workplace deliberation improved management practices but still faced significant obstacles, such as asymmetric power relationships and the control characteristics of industrial relations. Though Chinese industries are institutionalizing more workers’ voice input, Beijing nevertheless forestalls the Polish style of an independent trade union, thus workplace deliberation can be seen as a part of its authoritarian empowerment strategy.

He B.

How shall we all live together?: Meta-analytical review of the mutual intercultural relations in plural societies project

Living together in culturally plural societies poses numerous challenges for members of ethnocultural groups and for the larger society. An important goal of these societies is to achieve positive intercultural relations among all their peoples. Successful management of these relations depends on many factors including a research-based understanding of the historical, political, economic, religious and psychological features of the groups that are in contact. The core question is ‘how we shall we all live together?’ In the project reported in this paper (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies; MIRIPS), we seek to provide such research by reviewing three core psychological hypotheses of intercultural relations (multiculturalism, contact and integration) in 21 culturally plural societies. The main goal of the project is to evaluate these hypotheses across societies within the MIRIPS project in order to identify if there are some basic psychological principles that underlie intercultural relations panculturally. If there are, the eventual goal is to employ the findings to propose some policies and programmes that may improve the quality of intercultural relationship globally. An internal meta-analysis using the MIRIPS project data showed that the empirical findings from these societies generally support the validity of the three hypotheses. Implications for the development of policies and programmes to enhance the quality of intercultural relations are discussed.

Berry JW, Lepshokova Z, Grigoryev D.

The Influence Region of Origin, Area of Residence Prior to Migration, Religion, and Perceived Discrimination on Acculturation Strategies Among sub-Saharan African Migrants in Australia

The study examined whether there was an influence of region of origin, area, or residence prior to migration, religion, and perceived discrimination on the acculturation strategies of sub-Saharan African migrants in Australia. These factors have been found to affect acculturation, given the multi-dimensionality of identify formation. Data were obtained on 425 sub-Saharan African migrants and refugees living in Victoria and South Australia. Acculturation was measured using the Vancouver Acculturation Index. Compared to migrants from central Africa, those from eastern Africa (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.45; p < 0.01) were less likely to assimilate, while migrants who lived in large towns or the city prior to migration (AOR, 0.54; p < 0.05) were less likely to separate but more likely to assimilate (AOR, 2.26; p < 0.01) than those who came from refugee camps. Compared to Muslims, Christians (AOR, 0.57; p < 0.05) were less likely to integrate while those practising religions other than Islam or Christianity (AOR, 3.54; p < 0.01) were more likely to separate. Migrants reporting not fitting in/excluded were less likely to be in the culturally marginalised group (OR, 0.86; p < 0.01) but more likely to report being integrated (AOR, 1.14; p < 0.01), whereas those reporting personal discrimination (AOR, 1.12; p < 0.01) and societal discrimination (AOR, 1.13; p < 0.01) were more likely to separate or remain traditional. In order to promote cultural pluralism and facilitate cultural adaptations among sub-Saharan African migrants, educational programs, anti-racism policy, and legislative reforms need to reposition multiculturalism in a way that promotes tolerance and acceptance of ethnic, cultural, and religious diversity.

Renzaho AMN, Mansouri F, Counted V, Polonsky M.

The ethnicised hustle: Narratives of enterprise and postfeminism among young migrant women

Discourses of hustling are ever-present in a global, capitalist society in which, among other reforms, notions of time are compressed and intensified and neoliberalism is operationalised as a form of affective self-governance. Global brand campaigns like Nike’s ‘Rise and Grind’ want consumers to believe that hard work and persistence produces individual exceptionalism. Young people working in technology, cultural and creative industries in urban cities ‘never stop hustling – one never exits a kind of work rapture, in which the chief purpose of exercising or attending a concert is to get inspiration that leads back to the desk’ . This is the latest iteration of a corporatised vision of the hustle that seeks to glamourise exploitative working conditions, creating a culture where overwork and an obsession with being productive is the norm. This article considers how these discourses come into contact with localised migrant understandings of ‘the hustle’: an orientation to work rooted in the legacy of ethnic entrepreneurship. Drawing on a qualitative study with creative and cultural workers of ethnic minority backgrounds in Australia, the article explores their motivations to pursue creative vocational pathways in spite of structural challenges. While creative and cultural workers are heralded as model entrepreneurial subjects for their highly autonomous and flexible work patterns, here I draw on narratives about work and creative expression to suggest that the experiences of racialised young women lead to new possibilities for a race critical analysis of postfeminist, neoliberal discourses of entrepreneurship. By exploring how precarity and work insecurity is negotiated in the context of racialised young women’s lives, I ask what the implications are for minority young women who buy into the neoliberal values of individual exceptionalism and the myths of meritocracy while remaining embedded in their local communities.

Idriss S.

Everyday Multiculturalism in/across Asia

What does it mean to bring Asia into conversation with current literature on everyday multiculturalism? This book focuses on the empirical, theoretical and methodological considerations of using an everyday multiculturalism approach to explore the ordinary ways people live together in difference in the Asian region while also drawing attention to increasing trans-Asian mobilities. The chapters in this collection encompass inter-disciplinary research undertaken in Australia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and South Korea that explores some core aspects of everyday multiculturalism as it plays out in and across Asia. These include an increase in intraregional movements and especially labour mobility, which demands regard for the experiences of migrants from Burma, China, Nepal, The Philippines and India; negotiations of cultural diversity in nations where a multi-ethnic citizenry is formally recognised through predominantly pluralist models, and/or where national belonging is highly racialized; and intercultural contestation against, in some cases, the backdrop of a newly emergent multicultural policy environment. The book challenges and reinvigorates discussions around the relative transferability of an everyday multiculturalism framework to Asia, including concepts such as super-diversity, conviviality and everyday racism, and the importance of close attention to how people navigate differences and commonalities in local and trans-local contexts.

Walton J, Harris A, Iwabuchi K.

Gendered Digital Citizenship: How Indonesian Female Journalists Participate in Gender Activism

Per-capita, Indonesia has one of the world’s largest user bases of social media. However, in terms of online participation, Indonesian women lag behind their male counterparts (Suwana [2017]. “Empowering Indonesian Women Through Building Digital Media Literacy.” Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences 38 (3): 212–217). This article contributes to a greater understanding of how digital media and engagement enables Indonesian women (as digital citizens) to creatively express themselves, contest gendered ideals, and coordinate political and social activism. It builds on literature that seeks to understand what this means for Indonesian women’s active participation in and undertaking of digital citizenship. Drawing on interdisciplinary projects conducted by the authors, we discuss how female journalists negotiate digital activism in the Indonesian context. We demonstrate that Indonesian women’s digital engagement and their active participation in the production of digital media enables them to creatively express and contest gendered ideals, as well as mobilise activism around political and social causes. In doing so, this article applies a gendered perspective to emerging concepts of digital citizenship, highlighting women’s engagement, activism, autonomy, and creative expression.

Winarnita M, Bahfen N, Mintarsih AR, Height G, Byrne J.

Youth and political engagement in post-revolution Tunisia

Tunisia, the birthplace of the ‘Arab Spring’, has emerged as the only credible story of political transition and democratic consolidation across the region. However, ongoing challenges are tempering the euphoria of the early emancipatory mantra of freedom and dignity. Nevertheless, the political transformation continues to gather assured democratic momentum. And whilst the country’s political elite and leading civil society organizations have managed to avoid the chaotic, and in some cases violent, scenarios in neighbouring countries, some significant challenges remain ahead, none less important than enduring corruption, socio-economic inequalities, sporadic but highly damaging security events, and persistent economic problems, most notably high unemployment among university graduates. Based on qualitative insights and quantitative data, this paper shows that many of these challenges are epitomized in the critical demographic cohort of youth who are disengaging from all forms of formal political activities. The paper argues that democratic gains can be fragile and will be jeopardized unless urgent structural reforms and transformative initiatives are introduced in the country to restore, even partially, the youth’s capacity to influence the social reform agenda and the overall democratization process.

Mansouri F.

Negotiating ‘ideal worker’ and intensive mothering ideologies: Australian mothers’ emotional geographies during their commutes

Individualized, maternalist and marketized discourses of childcare are pervasive in Australia as they are in other liberal welfare states. Responsibility is overwhelmingly placed on mothers to carry out most childcare work themselves or to arrange informal or paid childcare. One of the key tasks for most employed mothers is transporting children alongside their commuting journeys. In this context we used mapping/graphic elicitation interviews with 45 Australian employed mothers to explore their commuting experiences through the lens of emotional geographies. Our findings reveal that mothers’ experiences of their commutes were shaped by negotiations with intensive mothering and ‘ideal worker’ ideologies during this journey resulting in emotions of guilt, shame and stress. The spatial and temporal organization of childcare, and incompatibilities between their commuting transport needs and the organization of public transport and parking, tended to amplify these tensions. Through an emotional geographies lens we complicate linear understandings of commuting and mainstream transport and planning work, while calling for more attention to the affective and relational dimensions of mothers’ everyday geographies of care and paid work.

Castro LR, Brady M, Cook K.